INDONESIA: Surabaya And Padang
Surabaya and Padang have been important harbor cities
for centuries. Both are natural harbors in that they are located at strategic
geographic areas. Surabaya is located in a small strait between the island
of Java and the adjacent, smaller island of Madura. Its position protects
the ships from the waves of the Java sea and Madura sea. It has been the
center of trade even before the arrival of Western people in the archipelago.
The exchange of rice from Java and spices from the Moluccas took place
from about the time of the existence of the "silk road", thus bringing
Indonesian spices to Europe. When the Dutch East Indies Company gained
control of the Moluccas at the turn of the sixteenth century, and subsequently
the island of Java, Surabaya continued to grow as the eastern harbor of
Indonesia. In terms of volume, the harbor of Surabaya was the largest
because it served the hinterland of Java producing agricultural products
as raw materials for European industries, i.e. rubber, coffee, tea, etc.
With the emergence of steamships in the nineteenth century, Padang became
a strategic port for two reasons. After the British left Bencoolen (Bengkulu)
in exchange for Singapore from the Netherlands following the Napoleonic
War, Padang became an important town with Teluk Bayur, as the harbor,
then called Emma Haven. Until recently, West Sumatra, where Padang is
located, was the only producer of coal in Indonesia. The coal was used
to fuel the steamships, which controlled the oceans of the time. Ships
coming and going from the Netherlands to the Netherlands Indies would
take coal from Emma Haven, near Padang, and fresh water from the island
of Weh at the northern tip of Sumatra. Emma Haven, as Surabaya, was protected
from the rough Indian Ocean by a group of islands off the coast of Sumatra.
Hence, until the Second World War, Surabaya and Padang were two out of
five major harbor cities of Indonesia, the others being Jakarta (then
Batavia), Medan, and Ujung Padang (then Makassar).
Indonesia faced a shortage of capital and skill to rehabilitate the plantations.
A number of rebellions against the Central Government prevented the country
from undertaking any significant attempt at development. When the New
Order Government emerged in 1966, Indonesia moved from a controlled to
an open economy. Foreign investment was invited and assistance to Indonesia
was organized by IGGI, a consortium of western countries. With foreign
investment, particularly in oil, gas, copper and forest exploitation and
with foreign aid for the public sector, Indonesia embarked upon the first
Five Year Plan in 1969.
The immediate emphasis was on the development of agriculture in order
to compensate for the shortage of rice. At that time Indonesia imported
some 2.5 million tons of rice. Rice hybrids such as the IRR-5 and IRR-8
were introduced, and fertilizer production was more than doubled in a
few years. Sprayers for insecticides were first imp6rted, then produced
domestically, to protect the new rice varieties from plant diseases. Concurrently,
irrigation was rehabilitated and expanded and improved planting techniques
were introduced. The so called five means plus farm credits produced what
is now known as the Green Revolution, which helped increase rice production
to a level of self-sufficiency in 1985.
Another important policy was the rehabilitation and expansion of the economic
infrastructure, particularly roads and harbors. By the end of the 1970s,
there was the so called "Colt revolution" in which Mitsubishi
minibuses could reach almost any area within Java and much of the area
outside. The economy grew rapidly, partly triggered by the oil boom of
1974 and 1979, when oil prices reached $34 per barrel. Oil products comprised
60 percent of Indonesian exports and thereby contributed substantially
to the improvement of infrastructure and services. Foreign investment,
domestic private investment, and government investment contributed to
the increase of per capita income from approximately $100 in the later
sixties to over $500 in the 1980s.
After the drop in the oil price from $34 to $9 in 1982, the government
encouraged the private sector to playa more important role in the economy.
This policy brought about the growth of economic conglomerates along with
all its consequences.
The Growth of Cities in Indonesia
Indonesia is predominantly a rural
country. The 1990 Census estimates that only 30 percent of the population
lives in urban areas. An urban area is defined as an area with a density
of five thousand people per square kilometer; less than 25 percent of
its people employed in agriculture; and it having eight out of fourteen
modern facilities (i.e. electricity, running water, paved roads, hospitals,
high schools, post offices etc.). Urban areas so defined are not always
synonymous with cities. On the island of Java, where about 60 percent
of the population currently resides, most large cities are under-bounded,
that is, the actual built up urban areas are larger than the administratively
defined city. On the other hand, outside Java, most cities are over-bounded.
They can include large expanses of rural areas and forests. Samarinda,
a provincial capital in East Kalimantan (Borneo), for example, has a land
area of 2700 square kilometers, more than four times the size of Jakarta.
The built up area, however, is small relative to the areas of forest,
marshes, and jungles. Jakarta, the capital city has the status of a separate
province, one of the twenty-seven provinces for the whole country.
Indonesia now has fifty municipalities, i.e. cities with a self government,
comprising a mayor and a local house of representatives. The size of municipalities
varies greatly from about 20,000 to more than 2.5 million inhabitants.
Surabaya is the largest of these municipalities. There are in addition
some fifteen administrative cities, i.e. cities with no self government.
In the last few decades, new cities have been added. This the result of
a law requiring capitals of regencies to move once they become a'municipality.
A new city is built which eventually may become an administrative city,
then becoming a candidate for a municipality.
Two other sources of urban growth are natural increase and reclassification.
Urban areas are growing faster because of natural increase and migration.
As of now it is estimated that migration contributes about 50 percent
of this growth and is increasing.
Natural increase, the difference between birth and death rates,
is still important, even though Indonesia fertility has fallen dramatically
under the influence of both economic development and the successful and
well known national family planning program. Urban areas have a younger
age structure and lower death rate compared to rural areas. These factors
contribute to a higher rate of natural increase. This young age structure
is likely to persist, as in migration from rural areas consists mainly
of young persons, who then go on to have families in the urban areas.
With industrialization progressing at a rapid rate, particularly in Java,
urbanization is likely to continue at a rapid rate. In addition, reclassification
of rural areas as urban (mostly by decree of the government) and annexation
of adjacent rural areas by cities have also added to urbanization. Minor
disputes take place between city governments and provinces on whether
urbanized areas adjacent to cities should be incorporated into the city.
Such areas are occupied by sub-urbanities who are relatively wealthy and
hence offer a potential source of property tax for local government.
Localities that are urban in character without a municipality
or administrative city status, are treated as rural areas. Such localities
fight for administrative city status, because this classification provides
the local government with more facilities. In turn this will accelerate
the growth of cities.
Looking at the distribution of cities in Indonesia, most Indonesian cities
are located at what is called the crescent, which runs from the Straits
of Malacca southward to the Java Sea and then northward to the Celebes
Sea. Most cities in Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi are on the outer rim of
th1J crescent, while cities in the island province of Riau in Sumatra
and cities in Kalimantan are on the inner rim of the crescent. Surabaya
is on the outer rim of the crescent, while Padang is outside the crescent.
Table 1 and figure 1 show the overall population growth of Surabaya and
Padang. Already around 1900 Surabaya was about five times the size of
Padang. Today that ratio remains about the same. Except for the period
after 1960, Surabaya grew at 0.5 to 1 percentage point faster than Padang.
The extremely rapid growth of Padang after 1960, which is clearly evident
in both the table and the figure, resulted from a reclassification that
gave Padang a vast expanse of what is still very much a rural area.
Table 1 Population and Growth Rate, Surabaya and Padang,
Figure 1. Population Change
Padang is the capital of the province of West Sumatra where
the native Minangkabau ethnic group lives. The capital of the province
used to be Bukittinggi, about one hundred kilometers northeast into the
mountains from Padang. However, after the rebellion in the mid-1950s was
over, the provincial capital was moved to Padang. Thereafter, the area
successively expanded by incorporating rural villages into the Padang
municipality. Today it is larger in area than the capital city of Jakarta.
Table 2 gives the population of Padang by sub-districts. The size of population
varies greatly between sub-districts, with those on the water front being
densely populated. The larger districts with the lowest density have been
incorporated only recently.
Legends say that the term Minangkabau comes from the word minang, which
means winning, and kabau, which means buffalo. The story says that the
people of that area outwitted the strong Javanese army by proposing that
buffaloes fight on their behalf. The Javanese selected a large, strong
buffalo, and the locals selected a baby buffalo, but secretly attached
a knife on its head. After being separated from its mother for some time
before the fight, the young calf ran to the big buffalo for milk. In the
process the baby buffalo with the knife secured to its nose, hit the other's
stomach, causing it to collapse. The local people won their independence
in the buffalo fight and until now the roofs of Minangkabau traditional
houses have the form of the unsweeping horns of the buffalo.
The Minangkabau people are among the most peripatetic of all Indonesia's
400 ethnic groups. There were only about four million Minangkabau people
out of a total population of about 180 million 1990. Nonetheless, they
can be found throughout Indonesia, with Padang restaurants even in small
The high mobility of the Minangkabau is partly due to the matrilineal
structure of the family. Land right pass through the female rather than
the male line. In traditional Minangkabau homes men stay and work in the
mother's family and spend only the night with their wives. Boys, once
they grow up have to sleep in the praying house or mosque and stay with
or help the parents during daylight. Young men are expected to travel
and work or study elsewhere (merantau) and return home occasionally. Even
after marriage, men may travel for a lengthy period and leave their wives
with the maternal family or the "big house" (Rumah Gadang).
There are wide variations in population growth between sub-districts.
There is, however, no simple explanation. Officials say that an area's
rate of growth depends on density, and people's desire to move to places
with cheaper land. Experience has shown that where new roads are built,
real estate companies grab the opportunity and it becomes a high growth
area. Most are compact areas with high density and encourage further growth
in adjacent areas. Housing has varying price levels, but all are obtained
through credit with the government's support and facilities.
Table 2 Population by Sub-district, Padang, 1971-87
||Area (sq. Km)
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Overall growth dropped from the 1970s to the 1980s (Table 3). Authorities
point to successful family planning and easier migration to other cities
because of improved transportation. Also, accelerated development in the
last decade has diversified employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors
of the country.
The city government is trying to reduce the differential growth in the
sub-districts. Reducing inequality is a goal in all sectors as well as
regions. The concept of harmony and balance and minimum inequality is
considered proper and appropriate, and underlies government thinking at
Table 3 Population Growth, Padang 1971- 87 (in Percent)
Lubuk C ean
Bungus Teluk Kabung
Projections for the current Fifth Five Year Plan called Repelita
for Padang are given in table 4. The average rate of growth is higher
in the projection than it was in the 1980s.
Table 4 Population Projection, Padang, 1991
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B. Infrastructure and Services
The New Order Government took control in 1966 and embarked
on the REPELITA I in 1969. Top priority was given to rehabilitating and
expanding the road system, for intra- and inter-city roads. This improvement
is reflected in the growth of transportation. It is certainly true that
this increase is due to improved income as a result of development in
Table 5 gives the number of public means of transportation in Padang.
Until a decade or so ago, public transportation was mostly limited to
non-motor vehicles, the horse driven cart and human powered tricycle were
dominant. In the last decade the numbers of traditional vehicles did not
grow, nor did they decline. Tricycles are discouraged through different
measures for reasons of efficiency and esthetics. The most common modern
transportation means are oplet and bemo (taxies with special routes which
operate as buses, but can stop anywhere along the route). Other common
means are minibuses and buses (including double deck buses). The data
for these vehicles are not exact, because they are based on registration
numbers; some vehicles might not actually be running.
Table 5. Number of Vehicles, Pasang 1984-88
||Type of Vehicles
6 gives the number of passenger on a yearly and daily average basis.
The numbers show a moderate increase which, for a population of more
than half a million in 1988, might well be considered adequate.
Table 6 Number of Passengers, Padang, 1984-88
||Average daily Passengers
The projection for 1989-1993, the REPELIA V is given in table
7. The daily average of passengers would be 388,000 in 1993 compared to
296,000 in 1988.
Table 7 Projected Passengers, Padang,
||Average daily Passengers
total number of buses and taxis would be 1646 vehicles for 1993
compared to 1130 for 1988 as given in table 8. It must be added that as
of mid 1991, Padang had no roving metered taxis.
Table 8 Projected Number of Vehicles, Padang, 1989-90
Housing has been given attention
in the last fifteen years or so. For urban areas the government has introduced
low cost housing through a subsidized credit system by state banks. Subsequently,
private real estates for middle and high income groups have grown, particularly
on the suburb of cities where land is relatively cheap. The data on housing
are based on to housing built through credit for banks and privately built
houses. The central government has monitored the housing development,
but has left the implementation of regulations to local authorities. Local
authorities have designated certain areas for real estates and have performed
the role of an intermediary between the real estates and owners of land.
It should be mentioned that real estate housing is not based on property
rights, but on a user's right for a period of twenty five years. After
twenty-five years a new user's right has to be obtained from government
authorities. Also, land ownership in West Sumatra is by clan, not by individual.
Table 9 shows the number of housing units in Padang at the end of the
third Repelita, i.e. 76,440. The average number of persons living in a
housing unit is 6.9. There would appear to be a shortage of housing, given
that the average family size in Indonesia is 5 and decreasing. It is projected,
however, that the growth of housing development of 3.2 percent is higher
than the population growth of less than 2 percent. Even so shortages may
take place, given that in the past many married couples stayed in the
"big house" and now nuclear families are more common, even in
West Sumatra. Thus the ratio between housing units and the number of people
will continue to decline, thereby accelerating the demand for housing.
The houses that are built through real estates are based on a family of
four. Critics say that this may weaken the family ties that prevail now
where three generation families are acceptable. As the number of older
people are increasing, many people are questioning the wisdom of a four
family housing unit.
Table 9 Number of Houses, Padang, 1988-93 (Projected)
D. Electric Power
One of the problems of Indonesia is a shortage of electric
power. Electric power development is a central government concern. Since
Repelita I, electric power generation has been given a high priority,
building hydropower dams, and developing diesel powered electricity as
fuel. A development of a complex of nuclear power stations (located in
Central Java) is underway and is expected to be in operation by the turn
of the century.
The growth of electric power in Padang is shown in table 10. The table
shows the number of distribution stations and the length of electric wires.
The most important change is the growth during Repelita IV from 213 to
392 stations and from 459.0 to 857.4 kilometers of wire. While the proportion
of houses with electric power is low, the service is generally reliable.
Table 10 Distribution Stations and Wires Network, Padang
E. Water Supply
water is a major problem in Indonesia. The emphasis is now on drinking
water. Repelita V has targets for production, consumption, customers,
and networks of drinking water. Table 11 shows the targets for Padang.
Currently most of the supply of drinking water comes from either
digging or pumping wells.
Table 11 Target of Drinking Water, Padang, 1989-92
F. Health Facilities
care for the general public is given at Health Centers of which there
is at least one in every sub-district. Subhealth centers are located
further away from sub-district centers. Integrated health services are
available in the neighborhood and are run by the community. Those who
can afford to do so, look for private practices in the evening. The
health facilities in Padang are given in tables 12 and 13.
Table 12 New Health Facilities Built, Padang, 1984-88
||Sub Health Facilities
||Integrated Health Service
Table 13 Health Facilities, Padang, 1989
Armed Forces Hospital
Sub Health Centers
Indonesians need a lot of water, i.e. for bathing twice a
day, for praying five times a day for Moslems, washing, etc. In rural
areas river water is still much used, in urban areas, for esthetic reasons,
this is limited by the authorities.
G. Selected Infrastructure and Services
The government has made great efforts to improve the welfare
of the people. This is reflected in the expansion of housing facilities,
roads, sewage, electricity, water, educational facilities, schools, and
mosque/praying places for Moslems.
Table 14 gives a general picture of the conditions at the end of Repelita
IV and plans for Repelita V. The emphasis has been given on the provision
of piped water. Electric power is high on the list, followed by pre-school
education. Kindergartens are taking care of pre-school education. It has,
however, not been compulsory. Compulsory education is so far combined
to six years of education for children seven to twelve years of age. There
are plans to increase compulsory education to nine years, in which preparation
for teachers is now underway.
Table 14 Human Settlement Targets, Padang, 1988 and 1993
|Size of Settlement (Ha)
Number of Houses (unit)
Length of Road (meter)
Length of sewage (meter)
Houses with electricity (unit)
Houses with Piped Water Supply (unit)
Total Preschool (unit)
Total Primary School
Total Mosque & Prayer Place
Minangkabau people value education very highly. Many of Indonesia's
intellectuals come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of high
learning in Padang. i.e. the University of Andalas and the Institute of
Teacher Education. The student body is not large and the best students
find their way to the good Universities in Java.
Table 15 gives the number of schools and the primary and students in the
primary and secondary levels. While the primary enrollment is reaching
a saturation point, the secondary school enrollment has been increasing
over the years.
Table 15 Education Development, Padang
|Type of School
Junior High School
Senior High School
I. Harbor Activities
Padang harbor serves inter-island as well international routes (table 16).
Table 16 Harbor Activities, Padang, 1985 and 1990
|Ocean Going Ships
Inter Island Ships
|Ocean Going Ships
Inter Island Ships
There was no important increase in the total number of ships
visiting Telukbayur, the harbor of Padang. There is, however, a change
in the composition. Inter-island shipping grew rapidly as did the number
of tankers. The increase in inter-island shipping is a reflection of increasing
domestic trade; and the increase in the number of tankers reflects the
increasing demand for fuel for transportation.
Table 17 gives a summary of cargo traffic. The volume of export and import
during the period of 1982-1985 dropped in part due to the fall in oil
prices in 1982; imports were cut in order to save foreign exchange.
17 Cargo Traffic, Padang, 1985 and 1990
INTER ISLAND LOADING
INTER ISLAND UNLOADING
LOCAL SHIPPING LOADING LOCAL SHIPPING UNLOADING
The commodities exported are rattan, cassia vera, nutmeg (uncaria),
moulding, plywood, fertilizer, resin, etc. The commodities imported are
sugar, fertilizer, asphalt, paper, gypsum, building material, machineries,
rice, etc. Table 14 gives the destination of exports. Asia is by far the
largest export destination, Japan being the most important.
Table 18 Export by Destination, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Tables 19 and 20 give commodities that leave Telukbayur and
arrive in Telukbayur. These figures indicate the importance of Padang
in the inter-island trade. Cement is the most important commodity exported
to other areas. Coal production, which was the life blood of West Sumatra,
has been supplemented by mines in South Sumatra and Kalimantan. The fuel
is widely used in the cement factories of Padang.
19 Freight Loading, Padang, 1985 and 1990
The commodities entering West Sumatra through Padang are consumption
goods and intermediate products produced in other areas. Cement and coal
are the major exports of West Sumatra. Overall, she is a net exporter
Table 20 Inter-island Freight Unloading,
Padang, 1985 and 1990
Table 21. Outgoing ships Carrying Cement,
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Table 22 Outgoing Ships Carrying Coal, Padang
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Surabaya covers an area of 292 square kilometers, slightly
less than half of that of Jakarta. The population of Surabaya has grown
rapidly since the turn of the century. In 1870 the Dutch Indies Government
introduced the open door policy and agrarian reform. Investors could obtain
a ninety-nine year land lease. This encourages long-term plantations.
All of Java eventually came under plantations, and East Java became the
center of the sugar industry. Coffee, rubber, and tobacco became the dominant
crops of East Java. During the colonial period, Surabaya was the main
harbor for East Java as well as for the southern part of eastern Indonesia.
The population of Surabaya was 1.2 million as reported by the first Census
of the Republic of Indonesia in 1961. The population and its annual growth
rate are shown in tables 23 and 24. In the 1971 Census, the population
was reported to be 1.6 million, an annual growth of 3 percent. The 1980
Census gave a figure of 2.0 million or a growth of 2.85 percent during
the period of 1971-1980.
Table 23 Population by Sub-district,
||Area (sq Km)
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Table 24. Population Growth, Surabaya, 1971-87 (in Percent)
Following the lead of Jakarta which assumed the
acronym Jabotabek as a planning unit, (standing for Jakarta, Bogor,
Tangerang and Bekasi), Surabaya assumed Gerbangkertosusila (G.K.S.).
Gerbangkertosusila, in local Javanese, means gate to prosperity and
order. It stands for Gersik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoardjo,
and Lamongan. These cities vary in distance from approximately thirty
to sixty kilometers from Surabaya. Surabaya's share of the area's
population was 28.4, 31.1, and 33.2 percent for 1961, 1971, and 1980
Surabaya is located in a low
plain with less than twenty-five meters, above sea level. It is divided
in two by the MAS river, an arm of the Brantas delta comprising of the
MAS and Porong rivers. The delta is a fertile area, once home of the Majapahit
Kingdom, supposedly the largest kingdom to ever control a major part of
The mean rainfall is 1,321 mm, of which 90 percent is concentrated in
the rainy season from November to May. The average annual temperature
is 26.9 degrees Celsius.
B. Land Use
and western Surabaya are predominantly rural., and the central region
mainly urban. Urbanization in the central areas encroaches on the
eastern and western parts. The central business districts are located
in the northern and southern parts of the city. An industrial estate
called Rungkut was created in the southeastern part of the city.
C. Traffic Flows
There are major traffic flows in the island of Java, i.e.
-Jakarta - Bekasi - Cikampek - Cirebon - Tegal- Semarang.
-Jakarta - Bogor - Bandung.
-Semarang - Jogjakarta.
-Surabaya - Sidoardjo - Malang.
-Surabaya - Mojokerto - Jombang - Madura - Semarang.
Most of the roads between these cities are two lane ways, a small proportion
are four way toll roads. Toll roads are located between Jakarta and Cikampek,
Jakarta - Bogor, Bandung Padalarang, and Surabaya - Pandaan (part of Surabaya
Vehicle ownership has grown rapidly since 1971. Passenger cars grew from
21,133 in 1971 to 45,525 in 1981. The number of trucks increased from
9,175 in 1971 to 27,506 in 1981. The number of buses increased from 968
to 1,678 and motorcycles from 53,652 to 206,926. Total vehicles grew from
84,928 in 1971 to 252,491 in 1980 and 439,451 in 1987.
Limiting the number of taxis and buses, the number increased from 4,307
and 1,159 in 1979 and 4,322 and 3,762 in 1989. Table 25 shows the growth
of these public vehicles by year. Roving taxis have been introduced to
Surabaya in the past few years.
Table 25 Public Transportation Vehicles, Surabaya, 1987-89
Electric power is a scarce commodity in Indonesia, and its
supply is centrally planned. The major sources are hydro-electricity,
steam and diesel power. A nuclear power is being planned for the north-eastern
part of Java. All resources of electric power have been linked into one
system. The growth of electric consumption is outlined in Table 26.
Table 26 Number of customers of Electricity by Category,
(In KV A) 1980-87
Water is abundant due to high rainfall. However, residential water
(clean water for drinking and other uses) is limited. As of now, only
some 40 percent of residential areas in Surabaya are served with piped
water (table 27).
Table 27 Number of Customers of Piped Water by Category,
Some 20 percent is supplied by water vendors who obtain water
from central piped water stations. The remainder comes from either open
or pumped wells. In an effort to supply more water, the government has
looked to increasing water from springs in the mountain areas and to water
purification plants which use water from the MAS river, a major tributary
of the Brantas river.
F. Educational Facilities
Education has been
the fastest growing service in Indonesia. A country which had a literary
rate of only 7 percent in 1950, now boasts a population which is 80 percent
literate. Some 98 percent of primary school age children attend school,
some 60 and 35 percent of junior and senior secondary school age children
are also now enrolled in schools.
Table 28 gives the number of schools, pupils, and teachers for pre-school,
primary and junior and senior secondary schools. Secondary schools are
divided into general and vocational/technical schools.
Table 28 Number of Schools, Pupils and Teachers, Surabaya
1983 and 1989
|Type of School
General Junior Secondary
Technical Junior Secondary
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Schools and universities may be run only by the state or private
foundations. The latter may be of religious nature. Government schools
are non religious, although religion is a compulsory subject. The western
type schools are run by the Ministry of Education. Religious schools,
with approximately 70 percent religious subjects and 30 percent academic
subjects are run by the Ministry of Religious Affairs. In recent years,
the percentage of religious curriculum has declined, so that it is theoretically
possible for students to move from one system to the other. The reality,
however, is that such moves are seldom easy because of families usually
prefer one type of school to the other.
In the private school system, there are two types of schools. One has
academic programs similar to the state schools', but with a stronger religious
orientation; the other is more religious oriented. Many students in Catholic
schools are Moslems and are not exposed to Catholic teachings. Parents
send their children to a school regardless of its religious orientation,
simply because of its good reputation.
Higher education is not the strength of Surabaya. Considering the size
of the population, Surabaya has a relatively small share of its students
in higher learning. Total enrollment at the higher education levels in
1986 was 72,391 out of a total population of 2.2 million. There are three
state owned higher educational institutions, Airlangga University, Surabaya
Institute of Technology, and Surabaya Institute of Teacher Education with
10,567, 2,093, and 2,220 students respectively in 1986. In addition, there
is one Islamic Institute under the Ministry of Religious Affairs. There
are fifty small universities and academies with a total student body of
57,511. Indonesia places no distinction between a college and a university.
An academy offers a three year program meant to teach specialized skills,
e.g. statistics, accounting. Some of the bright graduates may continue
their education, and eventually some earn doctoral degrees.
Health service in Indonesia is run by the government and private
sectors and by the communities. Under the Ministry of Health there are
general hospitals of different categories, ranging from those for large
cities to those for smaller cities. The government provides medical personnel
and low cost medicine. Doctors work for the government during daytime
hours and conduct their private practices in the late afternoon and evening.
In the last few years, due to an increase in the number of doctors, private
clinics and hospitals serve the general public twenty four hours a day.
However, this is at a higher charge than that of the government run hospitals
There are also specialized hospitals such as maternity services, mental
hospitals, etc. It should be mentioned that most deliveries are taking
place in homes assisted by certified midwives or traditional ones. In
addition, there are hospitals run by the armed forces which serve their
personnel and their relatives.
Since 1984, there have been twenty general hospitals in Surabaya, nine
of which are run by the private sector. The number of beds available were
4,210 in 1984 and 4,447 in 1989. Other types of hospitals have only a
small number of beds.
In each sub-district, there is one health center (more than one in larger
sub-districts), which provides outpatient services during working hours.
Health centers usually serve the poorer segment of the community; the
more affluent seek private practices. There were twenty-seven health centers
and twenty-five sub-health centers as of 1984 and thirty-nine in and forty
six respectively in 1989. To serve mothers and children, there were ninety
Mother and Child Care Centers, both government and privately run in 1984
and 102 in 1987.
Family Planning Clinics are run by the Family Planning Coordinating Board.
They provide family planning services on a cafeteria type basis. They
are staffed by doctors and nurses serving the low to middle class patients
in the community. Again, those who can afford to do so, seek private services.
Health service is minimal when one compares the number of health facilities
to the local population. However, better food, housing, and public health
measures have reduced mortality from a crude death rate of 23 per thousand
in the 1960s to less than 8 in 1990. Since there is no good vital registration
system, there is no reliable data on fertility and mortality. However,
based on reported case, there were 7,461 deaths in 1983 and 7,599 in 1987.
These figures are certainly underreported. It is also reported that there
were 30,554 births in 1983 and 27,922 in 1987. Both are underreported,
it should at least be doubled. But the decline in the number of births
clearly shows the effort of family planning programs. East Java, of which
Surabaya is the capital, is one of the most successful provinces in terms
of family planning
Surabaya is not a tourist destination. It is mainly an administrative,
industrial, and commercial center. As of 1986, there were 79 hotels with
2,992 rooms and 5,263 beds. Only about 15 of the hotels belong to one
to four star hotels. The remaining have no other facilities accept sleeping
rooms. Recreational facilities have been growing recently in the past
few years. Restaurants, pubs, and karaoke have been growing rapidly; their
numbers have yet to be properly reported.
houses different kinds of industries (table 29). Basic chemicals and
machinery industries more than doubled during the decade, light
manufacturing also grew rapidly. In terms of employment only some 105
thousand people were employed in the industrial sectors in 1990.
However, most people working in the secondary sector were in small
scale industries; the numbers are difficult to obtain. In fact some are
employed in the informal sector. Compared to Jakarta and Bandung,
Surabaya has only a small industrial base.
Table 29 Number of Industrial Units
by Sub Sector, Surabaya, 1980, 1985, 1990
||Basic Metal Machinery
Click Here to see larger
Surabaya still has people engaged in agriculture. As the developed area increases, land
devoted to agriculture decreases (table 30).
Table 30 Food Crop Area by Type of Crop, Surabaya, 1984-89
Click Here to see larger
Rice is grown on wet and dry land. The area planted with rice
continued to declined from 1984 to 1989. This is true for non rice food
crops as well. Once an area becomes residential or business, its price
increases. It is then uneconomical to grow food crops of whose value is
low per unit of land when compared to other uses. As is the case of with
Jakarta, accelerated industrialization might lead to the extinction of
agriculture in Surabaya.
Surabaya is an international harbor whose imports and exports amounted
to more than four million tons in 1988 (table 31).
Table 31 Export and Import by Continent, Area of Origin
and Destination, Surabaya, 1988 (Tons)
The bulk of export and import takes places with Asian countries,
of which Japan is the major partner. Similarly movement of goods to and
from America is primarily associated with the United States.
Inter-island shipping is also important, as is traditional shipping with
sailboats. Special freight shipping is done by special ships, e.g. salt,
fuel, etc (table 32). As seen from the table the amount of freight continued
increasing from 1985 to 1988.
Table 32 Freight Loading and Unloading, Surabaya, 1985-88
Inter-island shipping has increased in importance, in the
last few years, as the economy recovering from a slump caused by the drop
in oil prices. In a sense this reflects the demand for local products
as compared to imported materials. The deregulation which started in 1983
had unleashed the energy of people to produce and consume more. Table
33 gives the data for 1989, where inter-island movement of goods is dominant.
Table 34 gives the kinds of commodities transported within the country.
These include primary and manufacturing products. The list is long and
is likely to grow with the development of Surabaya and its hinterland,
particularly the surrounding GKS area.
Table 33 Loading and Unloading of Freight, Surabaya (Tons)
|Type of Shipping
Table 34 Inter-island Commodity Transported (Tons), Surabaya,
Table 35 gives the kind of commodities exported
through the harbor of Surabaya. Primary products (bran, pellets, corn,
molasses, etc.) make up the larger portion of commodities relative to
processed goods such as plywood.
Table 35 Commodities Exported, Surabaya, 1989
Imported goods are mostly intermediate products, used as inputs
for industries~ in Surabaya and East Java. Rice, sugar, and some food
products fluctuate according to domestic production. In 1984, Indonesia
achieved self-sufficiency in rice. This has been mean to a long term trend,
thereby allowing for the fat and lean years (both a result of climatic
conditions). It would seem that severe droughts occur ever eight years
or so (table 36).
Table 36 Commodities Imported, Surabaya, 1989
Industrial Raw Material
K. The Future of Surabaya
The government of Indonesia had requested JICA to make a study
on the Surabaya Metropolitan Area, commonly called Gerbangkertosusila
(G.K.S.). The study-was completed in 1982 and has helped form the basis
of future plans. One important decision not mentioned in the study was
the building of a bridge linking Surabaya with Kamal, on tlie adjacent
island of Madura. As of now, the two cities are connected by ferry boats.
The idea is to develop industries on the island of Madura which is barren
and infertile. It may then save the fertile Brantas delta for agricultural
These are some of the projections of the JICA study. It basically views
Surabaya, within the framework of SMA, as a growth pole for modernization
and rationalization of the economic system. The study team proposed aggressive
industrialization as an overall principle and plans a functional urban
structure to support the industrialization:
(i) The industrialization should be promoted - SMA as one of high level
development core in East Java
- The national aim of industrialization was first on processing of raw
materials. The next step was to process the basic raw materials to produce
finished goods with high value added.
-For G.KS. employment opportunity of 2.25 million should be made available
by the year 2000.
- The regional economy would require efficient development related to
-G.KS. is one of a number of designated industrial development regions.
-Four key factors were recognized for industrialization of G.KS.:
1) the existence of Surabaya harbor, Tanjung Perak.
2) the function of major transportation mode connecting Surabaya with
other urban areas of East Java.
3) the accumulation of financial, trading and wholesaling facilities in
4) the function of management and administration.
(ii) The basic concept of functional urban structure is to activate economies
of agglomeration. A principle way to control urbanization is to make obvious
the functional structure and to supervise the re-development of disorderly
development by compulsory measures.
The following considerations were suggested:
- ensuring an appropriate extent of urban area. A maximum of one unified
urban area is generally less than thirty km radius and within thirty minutes
travel by vehicle.
- cargo flow and passenger flow should be separated by an interval system.
The passenger flow is ensured in the central corridor while the cargo
flow should be in the outer corridor with a grid pattern connecting both.
- In order to have an efficient connection with outer region, considering
the high development potential of three radial corridors, it will be necessary
to develop a dual trunk system.
- Major industrial facilities, Le. manufacturing factories, truck terminals
and distribution centers, wholesalers and port are to be allocated along
major trunk routes supporting regional activities located outside the
CBD but not too far from residential areas.
- Mass transportation is the foundation of a functioning urban structure.
It is suggested that the bus system be substituted by an urban rapid railway
There are four major SMA development currently in progress in Indonesia,
i.e. Jabotabek around Jakarta, Greater Bandung with satellite cities,
Gerbangkertosusila and Belmera. The first three SMA are located in Java,
while Belmera, an acronym for Belawan, Medan and Tanjung Morawa, is located
in North Sumatra. Except for Bandung which is an upland city, the others
are located in the outer rim of the Indonesian crescent.
IV. Comparison Between Padang and Surabaya
Padang is located on a small strip of land along the coast
of West Sumatra. A few kilometers east from the city border is the edge
of the Bukit Barisan mountain range, which divides Sumatra into a large
low eastern plane and a narrow plane between the mountain range and the
Hence Padang practically serves only the province of West Sumatra. In
fact the eastern part of West Sumatra province beyond the mountain range
might be better served by river harbors along the strait of Karimata,
between the strait of Malacca and the Java Sea.
As has been mentioned in earlier sections, Padang harbor was important
when steamships were fueled by coal. Technology has changed the picture.
In addition, the growth of Singapore has changed the sea route from Europe,
particularly Holland. Prior to the growth of Singapore, the route from
Holland would be through the Indian Ocean and the inner waters of the
Netherlands Indies, and through the Strait of Sunda where the Krakatau
volcano is located. With the growth of Singapore as a transitory harbor,
the Strait of Malacca became an important sea way, particularly after
World War ll. Hence Padang became isolated from the domestic as well as
the international transportation route.
Surabaya on the other hand has a strategic location. In the past, it has
had to compete with Makassar (now Ujung Padang) located in the land of
Buginese (people who supposedly crossed the ocean in their "Phinisi" sailing
boat as far as Madagascar). When cloves mostly grown in Moluccas and coconut
in Sulawesi were relatively important, Ujung Padang, with its natural
harbor, was a strong competitor of Surabaya. The rebellions in the region
of Sulawesi until the earlier 1960s made Ujung Padang a less viable harbor.
Efforts to industrialize the area are discouraged by unfavorable land
rights based on customary law. This placed Surabaya as the center of transportation
in the eastern part of Indonesia.
Surabaya is also the center of industrialization in East Java, in the
context of GKS area. East Java has also had the luck of dynamic, future
oriented local leadership. .Manpower is abundant, comparable to the best
in the country.
Compared to Padang, where in-migration is low and out-migration to other
areas is high, Surabaya is a net receiving area, particularly if seen
as part of GKS. Large numbers of commuters create a gap between day and
evening population, although the number is so far not known.
Unlike Padang, where it is said that the best people would leave and the
mediocre would stay, Surabaya attracted the best from its hinterland.
On average, West Sumatrans who place education high on their list, are
better travelled and more alert than East Javanese, their numbers are
relatively small. East Javanese, are more open mindeq. than their Central
Javanese counterparts and are more receptive to new ideas. Like West Sumatrans,
East Javanese are practicing Islam more than the syncretic typical Central
Javanese. Hence East Java is more dynamic than Central Java, and Surabaya
and Jakarta attract more people from there. Semarang, the capital of central
Java does not seem to have the power to retain the good people to help
develop the province into something comparable with the East and West.
While Padang is located
in a subcultural area, the Minang- kabau with strong cohesion, Surabaya
is a "national city", although predominantly Javanese, accommodating people
from all over the country. With such diversity, tolerance is also higher.
As an example, night life in Surabaya is comparable to harbor cities of
similar size. Recreational facilities serve different tastes there. There
is no night life in Padang. Even most restaurants offer only local food
which manages to attract the taste of most Indonesian and some foreigners,
but variations are limited. Observance of the Islamic religion precludes
recreation beyond the religiously acceptable limits.
On harbor activities Padang has only limited commodities to export. However,
the shipment of cement and coal from Padang either for export or inter-island
destinations amount to over a million tons. This gives the impression
of Padang being close to Surabaya in terms of outward shipment.
East Java, in this case Gersik,(part of GKS area) produces millions of
tons of cement and fertilizers. Gersik, however, has a separate harbor
to export these products. If it were shipped through Surabaya it would
add a few million tons of outgoing and incoming freight as well.
There have been assertions that Padang would eventually become the export
harbor for cement, and that coal from West Sumatra would be used as fuel
for its expanded cement factories. When new cement factories begin production,
the national production will be 25 million tons instead of the present
17 million. West Sumatra would be assigned to produce cement for export,
while domestic needs will be supplied by factories elsewhere.
With the increase in electric supply from a hydropower dam currently in
reparation, West Sumatra might widen its industrial base, which would
have a positive impact on Padang.
Looking into the future, Padang and Surabaya will follow two different
paths. Padang has a potential to grow, but geographic and factor endowments
might be limiting. One thing the local government has not been successful
in so far is finding ways to attract capital and skill from those who
prosper in other areas. West Sumatra receives a large amount of transfer
payments from the sons and daughters elsewhere. These are even larger
than the amount the local government receives from taxes. However, it
is likely the money received by relatives is used for maintenance. West
Sumatra is a province where poverty does not seem obvious. Everyone looks
well fed and properly dressed. Houses look well maintained. The roads
are clean, and Padang has received a golden award after winning the Presidential
award for cleanliness five times.
Surabaya is blessed with a strategic location in Java, the center of political,
economic, and cultural activities in the archipelago. With a population
of more than 40 million out of the 120 million of Java, it has a large
pool of manpower and consumers. Its shai,e of industrialization Indonesia
is unlimited. Being the center of GKS it has the benefit of agglomeration
and at the same time is protected from an influx of people already screened
by its smaller satellite cities.
The year 2000, when Indonesia will try to start its transformation from
an agricultural to a balanced agricultural and industrial country will
likely put Surabaya, Jakarta, Bandung, and Medan in the forefront of development
with Padang trailing behind.