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AUICK Action Plan Progress Report, 2010

The Context and Influence of the Asian Urban Information Center of Kobe


4. Understanding AUICK's Influence

4.1. NGO and Academic Links

4.2. Mayor Support

4.3. Exspansion potential

4.4. Unexpected Outcomes

This chapter will look at the data presented in Chapter 3 both quantitatively and qualitatively, to understand AUICK’s influence on its Associate Cities. Firstly, Figure 3 reminds us of the implementation progress of workshop Action Plans, whose status is categorized as full, significant, partial or non-implemented. The most striking factor here is that half of all Action Plans formulated over the assessed period have been fully implemented. The remainder are significantly, partially and non-implemented in almost equal measure. (Figure 2 in Chapter 2 shows a detailed breakdown of these plans’ status by workshop.)


Figure 3. Comparison of Implementation Status of AUICK Workshop Action Plans 2005 - 2008
 

       Implementation Progress of Workshop Action Plans
Figure 4 details the 12 Action Plans categorized as ‘non-implemented’. The most common reason for non-implementation is the transferal of participants from their positions (4 cases) and the non–communication of Action Plan progress to AUICK (3 cases). Transferal was common among education department official participants of the Second 2005 Workshop. This might be an institutional characteristic of education departments in Asia. The city with the highest instance of non-implementation was Kuantan. This can be explained by the relatively centralized planning of policies in Malaysia, meaning less autonomy and influence of city planners in terms of policy implementation in their cities.

Figure 4. Non-implemented workshop Action Plans

Non-implemented Workshop Action Plans

Figure 5. Action Plan implementation status of 9 AACs, by workshop

Action Plan Implementation by Workshop

Figure 5 shows the status of Action Plan implementation by workshop. Notable here is that the implementation status of plans decreases chronologically. Earlier workshops show more fully implemented plans, and by the most recent workshop, only one is complete. Some areas of welfare provision may be harder to influence than others, although workshop themes were repeated between 2006 and 2008, so it seems simply that plans’ implementation increases with time. Most First 2008 Workshop plans are significantly implemented, while the majority from the Second 2008 Workshop are partially implemented. This bodes well for the future, as it implies that the success of the plans will grow with time. One exception here appears to be the relatively low success of plans from the Second 2006 Workshop. This would imply that the importance of population ageing and related policies is not as recognized by AAC administrations those in Kobe, showing the need for increased advocacy in the AACs. Data on the implementation of Action Plans by city in Figure 6 illustrates AUICK’s stronger influence on Weihai, Surabaya, Olongapo and Danang, medium implementation in Chennai and Faisalabad, and fewer measures incorporated into the administrations of Chittagong and Kuantan. As mentioned in Chapter 2.3, AAC mayors’ support to AUICK is most important, and that of recent mayors in Olongapo and Surabaya is notable, as is the strong community approach to development in Surabaya, which AUICK tries to promote. Also mentionable here is that the four AACs with highest Action Plan implementation are those which share more characteristics with Kobe and other AACs. Faisalabad and Chennai might have fewer commonly shared characteristics with other AACs, while Chennai is one city with fixed terms for its city officials, so ownership of AUICK Action Plans automatically changes, compromising both implementation prospects, and communication of progress to AUICK. In Kuantan, the centralization of policies could be the main reason for non-implementation, so their increased dialogue with national policy makers might ensure that Action Plans are not lost to centralized policy formulation. Chittagong’s lower implementation might be rectified with its higher administrative commitment to the plans, and an institutional agreement with Chennai might counteract the effects of its high rate of city official transferal.

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Figure 6. Action Plan Implementation of 8 workshops, by AAC

Action Plan Implementation by City

Further understanding of AUICK and Kobe’s influence on AACs comes from looking at Action Plans in terms of achievement in three areas that are promoted at AUICK workshops in Kobe. These are Government links with NGOs and academic institutions (the latter also promoted by AUICK through City University Partnerships (CUP) to form Management Information Systems (MIS) in the AACs); mayor support; and potential for expansion. Some plans have also had unexpected outcomes beyond their initial aims.

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4.1. NGO and Academic Links

A number of plans mobilized NGO, academic and social support for their implementation. For adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS plans, local HIV/AIDS related NGOs were incorporated in Chittagong, while Weihai linked the Women’s League Commission NGO with the local children’s’ hospital. Surabaya involved a family planning NGO, Pelayanan Kesehatan Peduli Remaja (PKBI), and Olongapo achieved UNFPA support in arranging the “Interface Workshop of Local AIDS Councils of Olongapo City and Davao City”, local NGOs supporting school-to-school symposia and monitoring the overall Action Plan. Khon Kaen’s Provincial Health Office trained HIV health care volunteers and local industrial leaders with NGOs, and Danang organized monitoring meetings among youth unions and the Association of Family Planning, who arranged quarterly work plans to sustain the Action Plan. For universalization of primary education for the urban poor, Kuantan synchronized educational institutions, community heads and NGOs, and Faisalabad achieved support from ‘Greenwatch’, a UNDP funded NGO. Khon Kaen’s plan to convert used oil to bio diesel incorporated Khon Kean University. For waste management and greening plans, Olongapo City Environmental Sanitation and Management Office (ESMO) coordinated government offices and NGOs for awareness programmes, incorporating local leaders and academic institutions in policy planning. To improve elderly welfare policies, Chittagong arranged data collection and discussions with the University of Chittagong, Surabaya involved NGOs and Airlangga University, and Danang enlisted NGO support for a government fund to protect the aged. Water environment management plans were promoted by over 100 committees of NGOs and resident welfare associations in Chennai, and Surabaya’s plan coordinated consultation among government departments, the local university and NGOs. For MCH in natural disasters, community leaders linked government and NGO services at the local level in Chennai.

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4.2. Mayor Support

As well as sustaining AAC participation in the AUICK Programme by their approval of workshop Action Plans, there are also instances where mayors have played key roles related to the plans themselves. In Olongapo, the Mayor raised education to the second highest priority of the city’s 10-point agenda, as a result of the plan. The Mayor of Surabaya supported environmental education plan by giving the opening speech at training sessions, and also rewards successful districts in cleaning and greening competitions. The Mayors of Chittagong and Faisalabad (District Nazim) headed disaster management committees with improved emphasis on MCH.

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4.3. Expansion Potential

Considering the limited technical and financial resources of AUICK and AACs, Action Plan Guidelines emphasize that plans should be actionable within the means of each workshop participant’s government department. Some plans though, have shown instances, or potential, for expansion beyond their initial scale. In Danang, strategies learned in Kobe to increase HIV/AIDS awareness were disseminated to hospitals and health centers for replication in further plans, and proposed expansions to a successful scholarship scheme for urban poor children include funding, policy formulation and parent education. From the First 2006 Workshop, Kuantan’s waste management was continued under the national waste plan, showing a clear opportunity for its country-wide promotion and expansion, and Fasialabad’s piloted door-to-door waste collection plan was expanded city-wide. Expansions are planned for greening competitions and elderly health care awareness programmes in Surabaya, and a successful Senior Citizen health care plan in Olongapo is now proposed as a permanent mechanism to protect the elderly poor. For disaster management incorporating MHC, government committees, cells and plans are disseminated for replication at the community level in Chittagong and advocated to the entire Punjab region by Faisalabad. And Kuantan’s disaster management plan, amended to incorporate MCH and utilized during flooding 2008, has been adopted at the level of Pahang, Malaysia’s third largest state.

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4.4. Unexpected Outcomes

Some plans have yielded results unforeseen at their planning stage. In Chennai, an HIV/AIDS health worker training programme led to additional cervix cancer training. Faisalabad’s comprehensive universalization of primary education plan preceded two years of 9-10% enrolment increases. Chennai’s environment management plan received funding of Rs.255.32 crores (approx USD 50m) from Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission of the Government of India, and its disaster management plan’s network of trainers was utilized to educate citizens on issues ranging from waste segregation to HIV/AIDS awareness.

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CONTENTS

AUICK Action Plan Progress Report, 2010

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 3.1.

Chapter 3.2.

Chapter 3.3.

Chapter 3.4.

Chapter 3.5.

Chapter 3.6.

Chapter 3.7.

Chapter 3.8.

Chapter 3.9.

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Conclusion

Annex

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